Archivo de la categoría ‘Environment’

PostHeaderIcon Our History……………..

 Well, now to continue increasing and improving this cool blog, we have decided to see what we left behind, what we got before we studied the nature and its components as they are now. 

And we decided, that Our History is really cool, interesting and can show us many things that we do not do nowadays, and that some way have affected our life.

Because of that we are going to talk about  Civilizations, Mythology, Gods, Goddesses and more, so here we begin.   We hope you all enjoy it.



A civilization began in Egypt on the Banks of the Nile River over 5,000 years ago.  This civilization along with Mesopotamia, India and China was one of the earliest and most important civilizations.  Its form of writing, hieroglyphics, its art and other features of its culture were adopted by other ancient kingdoms and civilizations.  The ancient Egyptians´ influenced extended centuries after Egypt ceased to be a great civilization. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced additional crops, which fueled social development and culture. Nowadays Egyptian civilization is greatly appreciated for its cultural legacy.



Some interesting and curious facts of the Egyptians are:

  1. When they went hunting, Egyptians uses boomerangs, traps or bows and arrows.  When hunting crocodiles they used bait with a hook.
  2. During harvest time landowners would often hire musicians.  Many professional musicians were blind.
  3. Egyptians used donkeys and horses to transport goods and people from place to another, Never Camels.
  4. Men wore loincloths called Kilts and soldiers wore asuit of heavy leather.
  5. Eye paint was used by men and women.  The purpose of the eye paint was not only to enhance the eyes and improve the personal appearance but also to keep the flies away.
  6. When a doctor was unable to heal a person with traditional types of medicine, he might use magic because it was thought that some diseases were caused by dead spirits.



Egyptian way of death

Mummies are dead humans or animals that have been preserved.   In ancient Egypt, millions of people, animals and even insects were mummified.  The most important the deceases had been in life determined how he or she was treated after death.  A king or aristocrat was embalmed.  His body was smeared with different ointments and was eventually wrapped with linen strips.  Peasants were often simply buried in the desert.  In either case, the dry climate took the moister out of the body and the body became a mummy. 

Egyptians did not understand the importance of the brain.  They felt that the heart controlled feelings and thoughts.  When preparing the mummy the embalmers removed the brain but left the heart.  This was very important since they believed that the hearts keep a record of all the good and bad things the person had done in live.

Animals were identified with certain gods and were often mummified and buried in what we call today Pet Cemeteries.  They were also buried in tombs with humans.  Egyptians believed that animals acted as messengers to the gods.  Mummies of Bulls, baboons, birds, cats among other animals have been found.



In ancient Egypt almost one third of the days were Holy days.  An Egyptian temple was not a place to hold worship services.  The Egyptians considered temples as a place where a god or goddess lived when he or she was on earth.  Ordinary Egyptians were not allowed inside the temple.  I a citizen wanted to pray to a god, he or she would go to the temple gate.  Each temple generally had a priest and sometimes deputy priests.  They also had priestesses who sang hymns, professional musicians, singers and dancers.  The staff of the temple included cooks, butchers, bakers and brewers who prepared food to offer to the gods.  There were also maintenance men, cleaners and slaves to maintain the temple.



There were several pyramids in Giza.  The largest and the oldest of the pyramids was built as the tomb of Khufu called Cheops.  It took over 20 years to build the Great Pyramid.  One of the reasons the construction took so long was that there were no modern tools and machinery for such big job.  Over two and one-third million stones blocks, each one weighing about two and one half tons, were transported from a stone quarry on the other side of the Nile.  Workers bars to tip the huge stones to the side in order to slip a sledge underneath it.  The workers were then able to pull the stone over round logs.  Once moved to the barge the stone was taken across the Nile, unloaded and a similar method was used to transport the stone to the building site. Pyramids were built by stacking each level of stones on top of the last level, which each higher level being smaller than the level before.  When the top level was completed the sides looked like steps.


When the last stone was put into place, the workers began to fill in the step-like sides of the pyramid with white limestone.  This time they worked down the pyramid.  They would pull the limestone up the ramps and fit the blocks into the levels forming a smooth surface.  When they had completely worked their way down to the base of the pyramid, they were finished.  The white limestonemade the surface of the pyramid smooth and beautiful and caused it to glisten in the sunlight. Originally the pyramid had an alabaster covering, which gave the pyramid its gleaming surface.Important structures inside the pyramid such as temples and tombs that were intended to last forever were constructed of stone instead of bricks.


The interior of the pyramid, or the burial chamber, was built as the pyramid was being constructed.  Before the first stone was laid, the burial chamber was dug and prepared.  Then as the pyramid was built layer per layer, an opening was left, forming a corridor which served as an entrance to the burial chamber.  For some reason the original burial chamber of the great pyramid was not used and a new burial chamber was built inside the pyramid itself.  The measurements of the Great Pyramid are difficult to determine. When it was first built it was about 480 feet but today it is not as high.  Each side of the base measured 756 feet and while each side is not identical the difference between the longest and the shortest side id less than 0.1 %, which is surprising considering the primitive tools.



Egyptian cuisine remained stable over time.  The cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients. The main diet consisted of bread and beer, complemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs. Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes could it on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and chicken could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.  Food plates were decorated with eatable flowers and perfume.  Farmers and other low class social groups would eat in miry-clay pots, while the high class would eat in plates made of gold and precious stones such as rubies, emeralds, sapphires, etc.  Golden cups were also used for drinking wine or water.  These cups were believed to have been scented while being made, so that way they would have a constant perfume without changing the taste of the beverages.


For thousands of years ancient Egypt was ruled by royal families. We know much about the pharaohs and queens from these great dynasties because of their magnificent tombs and the public monuments raised in their honor.Egypt’s first ruler was King Narmer, who united the country in about 3,100 B.C.. Later pharaohs such as Zoser and Khufu are remembered for the great pyramids they had built as their tombs.Pharaohs usually succeeded to the throne through royal birth. However, in some cases military commanders such as Horemheb came to power. Although Egypt’s rulers were traditionally men, a few women were made pharaoh. The most famous of these was Cleopatra  who ruled Egypt in 51 B.C.

Among the most famous Egyptian kings are:

Amenhotep who led the Egyptianarmy to battle in Nubia.He alsofounded the workmen’s village at Deir el-Medina.

Tutankhamun, this pharaoh came to the throne when he was onlynine years old. He died at the age of 18. He is remembered for his tomb in the Valleyof the Kings, which was packedwith amazing treasures.



I am Cleopatra.  I was born in 69 BC in Alexandria which was the capital of Egypt at the time. My father was the Pharaoh of Egypt when I was born and his name is Ptolemy XII. In 51 BC my father died and since I was the eldest child, I inherited the throne of Egypt with my brother Ptolemy XIII.

At age 18, I was the queen of Egypt which was not an easy job. I had enemies to contend with. People were jealous that I was so intelligent (I knew 9 languages) and that I was an independent ruler. I ruled for 3 years until I was overthrown by one of my father’s advisors. I was forced to leave Egypt and move to Syria while my younger brother became the sole ruler of Egypt. But I don’t give up so easily.

I found out that the Roman general, Julius Caesar, was in Alexandria and I devised a plan to enter into the city of Alexandria to make a plea to him. I had myself wrapped in an oriental rug and had the rug offered as a gift to Caesar. When the rug was unrolled, I tumbled out. Though I’m known in modern day to have been a great beauty, I truly wasn’t. But my charm overtook the powerful Caesar and it was love at first sight.

My brother felt he had been betrayed and he declared war against Caesar and his Roman army. My brother died in the war and Caesar gained control of the throne of Alexandria. Caesar restored the throne to me. Again, I was the queen of Egypt and was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar and I had a son together but a short time later, Caesar died.

Later Mark Antony prevailed as ruler of the Roman Empire, I supported him. He and I eventually fell in love-

Fortune turned against us in 30 BC. Octavian was a man who was also in line for the throne of the Roman Empire. He was not fond of Mark Antony or me, and he declared war on Egypt. He defeated my beloved Mark Antony and then had me arrested. At the age of 39 I died in honor and was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.


I was the twelfth king of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty, I am Tutankhamen. I became the most famous of the pharaohs.  My parents were Amenophis  andKiya.

I was only a child when I became king at the age at eight.  I owe my rise as a king to my marriage with Ankhnesamun, the third daughter of Ikhnaton and Nefertiti.  My wife and I never had children.

Despite the presence of paintings of me slaying my enemies I was never involved in any serious military operations. I was a trained archer and in my tomb were found many trophies that I won for my hunting skills.

I died at the early age of eighteen and the cause of my death is unknown.  Many believed that I had been assassinated because of the harm found in my skull.  

In my tomb there was a huge treasure that had more than five thousand objects, many of which were covered with gold and beautifully imprinted. The most famous of these objects is probably the life like gold mask that covered my face in my burial chamber. There were also uncovered military items, clothing, jewelry, and many statues of me and Egyptian gods. In fact, there were so many items in my tomb that many are still being examined today and have yet to be displayed in museums.









King of the gods.  He is very powerful and sometimes angry but he can also be kind and caring.  He loves beautiful women regardless of them being mortals or goddesses.


Brother of Zeus.  God of the ocean.  He carries a trident which is just as powerful  Zeus´  lightning bolt.


Zeus´wife.  She is a great lady and is guardian of love and marriage. 


Daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom and war.  She is the protector of the city of Athens.


Son of Zeus.  God of poetry, music and medicine.  He is associated with the sun.


Apollo`s twin sister.  Goddess of hunting and of wild things.  She is a associated with the moon.


Son of Zeus.  Terrible god of war.


Blacksmith and god of fire.  Son of Hera and Zeus.


Wife of  Hephaestus.  She is the most beautiful of the goddesses of the Olympus represents love, passion and beauty.

These and many other were the gods and goddesses of the Olympus, rulers of mankind were humans were puppets of fate and destiny.  There were also semi-gods such as Hercules, which used their immortality and powers to help men and sometimes challenge the gods because they considered them unfair.

Roman and Greek mythology has had a great impact over the ages; even now there are scientific facts that find their origins in mythology.  Such facts as those of mermaids and other creatures that were believed to be but a myth.  The truth is that myth or not mythology is important and interesting and should always be part of study as knowledge of general culture.   

After this work, the students of the 9th. grade from our high school, have done presentations for their little friends from primary school, to explain some of the things that they have learned by themselves about Mythology, Gods and Goddesses.  It`s really important to tell you, that the students did all the work by themselves, the investigation, the summaries, the dialogues, the costumes, the kind of presentations that they were going to perform.  

Here, you are going to see how they worked before the presentations and the videos that they did for this blog.


We prepared a short presentation for the little kids from our school.  We did a video  and this is the result.




We decided to do a performance, this play was also for the the little ones.



Our group prepared a puppet show, we did some of the puppets, the kids really liked it!




Ours was a presentation, but for our friends from 8th. grade.  We talked about the interesting Medusa.

And we are going to show you also, the presentation that we wrote down by ourselves.

Janis Corrales:

King Acrisius of Argos had aughter Danae, who was good and beautiful. But acrisius wanted a boy, so he made a journey to the Oracle to ask if he would ever be the father of a boy, the priestess said no, but his daughter danae wolud have a son, and that son would kill him.

Kharelyz Iñiguez:
To prevent this, Acrisious shut Danae up in an underground apartment. Danae was cut off from men, but Zeus, drawn by her beauty, came to save her, and leave her pregnant, then he left her.

María Paula Arellano:

Time passed and one day a messenger came running to the king and told him; » Majesty, a son is borne to your daughter». The king, scared, had a big chest made. Danae and the baby boy Perseus were placed in the chest and set adrift on the sea.

Estefano Cornejo:

They arrived in a tiny island of Seriphus. A fisherman found the chest in the beach and released  the prisoners. And the fisherman took them to his house. Perseus grew up, tall, strong, and athletic.

Kristen Gálvez:

The king of Serphius was the brother of the kind fisherman but the king was cruel and wicked man. Danae and Perseus drew his attention he wanted to marry Danae but she already the bride of Zeus refused. So the king had a plan to Perseus to lead him to death. He told Perseus he was wasting his talents on Serphius.

Luis Pérez:

There was a big world out there, he should go see it and do great things and become a hero, the king told Perseus to kill Medusa, one of the 3 Gorgons. The king explained Perseus that the Gorgons were 3 sisters, living somewhere far away.

Janis Corrales:

Two of the sisters were very ugly, but Medusa was most beautiful, but  the hair  that she had was of Snakes, and the snakes could turned men to stone. No one knew exactly where these horrible sisters lived.


Kharelyz Iñiguez:

the hero needed all the help of the gods ,and he got it .Athena gave him her strong shield ,so highly polished it was like a mirror.Hades gave his helmet that made the wearer invisible.Hermes brought a pair of silver sandals with bright wings.they also gave him a special weapon.

María Paula Arellano:

But there were no guidelines for him to get there .Athena told him he must find the Gray sisters, who would tell  him where to go. Hermes was his guide for the first stretch of the journey. They flew over the seas to the back-earth country of the Cimmerians (now called Ukraine, located in Southern Russia).

Estefano Cornejo:

In the northern borderlands they found the gray sisters . they were like 3 old gray birds who had only one eye and one tooth. Perseus had to trick them into telling him what he wanted to know by stealing the eye; the he returned it to them with thanks.

Kristen Gálvez:

So with Athena’s shield , Pluto’s invisible helmet, Hermes’ sandals ,and his sickle sword. Perseus was ready for Medusa. Alone now, he flew off to the far west and found the gorgon’s cave as the gray sister sisters had told him.

Luis Pérez:

With his back to the cave, Perseus  kept his eyes on Athena’s shield which,  shinig like a mirror, reflected the shapes of the Gorgons who were sleeping inside. Two of the sisters were immortals, but Medusa was mortal and beautiful.

Janis Corrales:

Silently thanking the gods for the invisible helmet ,Perseus backed into the cave , watching the images in the mirrored surface of his shield. Focusing on the reflection of Medusa ‘s head .he rose a bit on the winged sandals, raised the sword above him, and Athena, who was always there at the right time, guided his hand.

Kharelyz Iñiguez:

whit one sweeping blow, the curved blade cut off the snaky head, and perceus dropped it into a leather bag, drawing the latches tight- but not before he had spilled some blood.


María Paula Arellano:

From those drops sprang the winged horse, Pegasus.But perseus was already in the air. The other two sisters woke up and ran raving and screaming after him, But Perseus victorious, was gone.

PostHeaderIcon Tsunami

A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that send surges of water, sometimes reaching heights of 30.5meters onto land. These walls of water can cause destruction when they crash ashore.

These awe-inspiring waves are typically caused by large undersea earthquakes al tectonic plate boundaries.

The most tsunamis, about eighty percent happen  within the pacific ocean ring of fire.  A geologically active area where volcanoes and earthquakes are common.


The best defense against any tsunami is early warning that allows people to seek  high ground.


PostHeaderIcon Educared


Premio Internacional Educared 2011 

PostHeaderIcon Hi World !








We are students from gutenberg schule, we are in 4th. grade “s” and we love our school.
It`s very nice because it`s big and it has a huge backyard, where we can play and study, especially science.
Science is very nice, we like to study the animals, the water, the earth and we really enjoy doing experiments.
Our teacher takes us outside to see everything and discover the things that are in the book, the homework are very easy and we also sent them by mail.
We are happy learning english and studying science.


PostHeaderIcon The Earth









The Earth is a planet that turns around the sun and it is made up of 70% of water and the rest is earth and it is believed that the Earth is the only planet that has life

The Earth has 4 layers and they are: inner core and outer core, mantle, and crust, here there are people, animals, plants, so there is life.

We live in the crust and this situation is possible because of the gravity. The gravity lets us stay standing without falling as long as the earth turns around.

In the inner and outer core, there are rocks and metals but in liquid form because this is the hottest part of our planet.

In the mantle, there are rocks, in fact it is a rocky shell and it is the thickest layer of the Earth.













But all this is inside the Earth and is not visible for us, now let`s discover what we can see and enjoy with our sight.

Our planet is fantastic, it has everything that we need, and the landscape that gives us everyday is just a proof of how great it is.


Our Mother, the Earth




PostHeaderIcon Environment

Natural Environment: The natural environment is everything that surrounds us; it involves the living things and the non living things.

Lately, we have seen that our environment is in constant danger, there are many animals in extinction, the water and the air are polluted, and the ozone layer is getting damaged. All this caused by the human being.

Our responsibility is to know about our planet and how to take care of it. On this  blog, you are going to find information about the earth and the water, the same that will help everybody to be conscious that we have to respect our nature, our home.


Living Things: The living things are all the ones that can breath, grow, reproduce and die, so living things obey a life circle. The group of Living things involves the humans, the animals and the plants.































Non Living Things: The non living things, on the opposite of the living things do not obey the life cycle such as: the rocks, toys or machines.